this is the study by P. MaÃ±a (of the University of Santiago de Compostela in Spain), M. Goodyear, C. Bernard, R. Tomioka, M. Freire-Garabal and D. LiÃ±ares in the Journal â€œInternational Immunologyâ€ 16,3, p. 489â€“499, published in March 2004.
The full text is available online at: http://intimm.oxfordjournals.org/content/16/3/489.long
George Jelineks refers to this study in note 71 (on p. 410) to p. 103 in the new book (in the old  book: note 10 on p. 336 to chapter 5, p. 84). George Jelinek drew from this study the conclusion (new book, p. 103): â€œOther researchers have demonstrated how certain proteins in cowâ€™s milk mimic part of myelin oligoendrocyte glycoprotein, the part of myelin thought to initiate the auto-immune reaction in MS.71â€
, that is: he refers to it as supporting the statement, that molecular mimicry and crossreactivity between cowâ€™s milk protein Butyrophilin (BTN) and the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) exists. This is certainly correct.
What George Jelinek does not mention is that the researchers had also been able to use BTN to attenuate EAE (the mouse model for multiple sclerosis) in mice. And this is probably what seems to be contradictory about the link between BTN and MS. There is also speculation in other papers whether this molecular mimicry between BTN and MOG might not be exploited to use BTN to desensitize us and teach our immune system to tolerate our own MOG instead of attacking it (see e. g. Johannes Guggenmos, A. S. Schubart, S. Ogg, M. Andersson, T. Olsson, I. H. Mather, C. Linington, â€œAntibody cross-reactivity between myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein and the milk protein butyrophilin in multiple sclerosis, in: Journal of Immunology 2004 jan. 1; 172(1): 661â€“668, full text available at http://www.jimmunol.org/content/172/1/661.full , where on p. 667 they write:
â€œa molecular mimic of MOG and that immunological cross-reactivity occurs between these two proteins in a subset of MS patients. Because milk and milk products are a staple component of the Western diet, BTN should be considered a ubiquitous environmental factor that can influence the autoimmune response to this specific myelin autoantigen. The pathophysiological consequences of molecular mimicry involving BTN are difficult to predict, as they will be influenced by multiple factors, including an individualâ€™s genotype, the timing and level of exposure to BTN, and the health of the gastrointestinal tract. In fact, chance may play a major role in determining whether or not molecular mimicry between MOG and BTN leads to a detrimental or protective immune response in any particular individual. Intriguingly, epidemiological studies associate the prevalence of MS with the consumption of milk and dairy produce (41, 42, 43), but whether this is related to molecular mimicry involving MOG and BTN remains a matter of speculation.â€ [highlighting in bold characters by me].
Or see Johannes Guggenmos in the English abstract to his German PhD thesis â€œImmunologische KreuzreaktivitÃ¤t zwischen dem Myelin-Oligodendrozyten-Glykoprotein (MOG) und Butyrophilin (BTN) bei Multipler Skleroseâ€ at LMU Munich in 2003 (English abstract and German full text available at https://edoc.ub.uni-muenchen.de/674/ ): â€œImmunological cross-reactivity between MOG and BTN may modulate the composition and pathogenicity of the MOG-specific autoimmune response. In one scenario this response might be innocuous or even protective due to the induction of oral tolerance by BTN that cross-reacts with MOG. Alternatively, cross-reactive antibodies and pro-inflammatory Th1 T cell responses may target humoral and cellular effector mechanisms to attack white matter tracts in the CNS of susceptible patients.â€ [highlighting in bold characters by me]
Although I have no medical background and do not understand medical studies or abstracts sufficiently, to my limited understanding there apparently seems to be a chance, that BTN could one day be used to help against MS inflammation. This seems to be a promising trajectory for future research. And indeed, there seems to be a lot of research going on in this field, as quite a number of recent studies pop up, if one types â€œimmune toleranceâ€ and â€œencephalomyelitisâ€ / â€œEAEâ€ / â€œMOGâ€ into PubMed.
But until the researchers come up with a working therapy for humans using BTN, I prefer not messing around with that protein.
I agree with Kashu and Rafticon that the epidemiological observations carry enormous weight.(The objection, that the correlation between higher MS incidence and higher milk consumption might be different, if all milk consumption had been of skim milk and low-fat dairy alone, does â€“ in my view â€“ not constitute a proof that there is no link between butyrophilin and MS. It states â€“ correctly â€“ that there is a possibility that there might be no such link. A possibility, not more!)
How much evidence do we require? Do we need to see waterproof evidence, before we take action? Or do probabilities and plausible explanations suffice?
My personal decision was to trust George Jelinekâ€™s informed judgement and to follow his precautionary advice to eliminate dairy. This was not easy for me, since I had always loved (skim) milk (to the point of addiction). But â€“ similarily to what Veg has experienced â€“ I was lucky to receive a signal that my body apparently thanked me for being liberated of milk: No more headaches! In the days before skipping dairy I had suffered on about 2 days per week from headaches, not terrible migraines, that incapacitated me, just â€œnormalâ€ headaches, which nevertheless were annoying and reduced my sense of wellbeing. I had been so used to these regular headaches that I had considered them a normal part of my life. But with the elimination of dairy these headaches were gone. Therefore, like Veg, I have never regretted skipping dairy and feel all the better for it.
If you ask me whether three years of adherence to the OMS program have helped me in respect to my MS symptons: Yes! My walking is slowly improving.
There is also a podcast by George Jelinek with the title â€œProf. Jelinek Discusses the Journal Articles On Cowâ€™s Milkâ€ (of January 21, 2011), here in the podcast library, which goes into more detail than both books do (old book: p. 83â€“85 + notes 6â€“10 on p. 335â€“336; new book: p. 103â€“104 + notes 68â€“71 on p. 410)
See: https://overcomingms.org/community/podc ... lk-and-ms/
On many other problematic aspects of milk and dairy see Michael Gregerâ€™s website http://www.nutritionfacts.org
and type in â€œmilkâ€.
I would be very grateful, if somebody with more medical knowledge joined this discussion and offered her/his assessment and comments on the studies which talk about a protective potential of butyrophilin.
Letâ€™s be on the save side of this butyrophilin question!