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References for nutrition in MS


  • Adafer R, Messaadi W, Meddahi M, Patey A, Haderbache A, Bayen S, Messaadi N. Food Timing, Circadian Rhythm and Chrononutrition: A Systematic Review of Time-Restricted Eating’s Effects on Human Health. Nutrients. 2020 Dec 8;12(12):3770. doi: 10.3390/nu12123770.
  • British Nutrition Foundation, ‘A healthy balanced diet’, accessed via
  • Franquesa M, Pujol-Busquets G, García-Fernández E, Rico L, Shamirian-Pulido L, Aguilar-Martínez A, Medina FX, Serra-Majem L, Bach-Faig A. Mediterranean Diet and Cardiodiabesity: A Systematic Review through Evidence-Based Answers to Key Clinical Questions. Nutrients. 2019 Mar 18;11(3):655. doi: 10.3390/nu11030655.
  • Kahleova H, Levin S, Barnard N. Cardio-Metabolic Benefits of Plant-Based Diets. Nutrients. 2017 Aug 9;9(8):848. doi: 10.3390/nu9080848. PMID: Kappus N, Weinstock-Guttman B, Hagemeier J, Kennedy C, Melia R, Carl E, Ramasamy DP, Cherneva M, Durfee J, Bergsland N, Dwyer MG, Kolb C, Hojnacki D, Ramanathan M, Zivadinov R. Cardiovascular risk factors are associated with increased lesion burden and brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2016 Feb;87(2):181-7. doi: 10.1136/jnnp-2014-310051. Epub 2015 Feb 26.
  • Leeming ER, Johnson AJ, Spector TD, Le Roy CI. Effect of Diet on the Gut Microbiota: Rethinking Intervention Duration. Nutrients. 2019 Nov 22;11(12):2862. doi: 10.3390/nu11122862.
  • Lerner A, Matthias T. Changes in intestinal tight junction permeability associated with industrial food additives explain the rising incidence of autoimmune disease. Autoimmunity Reviews. 2015 June, 14;6: 479-89
  • Magyari M, Sorensen PS. Comorbidity in Multiple Sclerosis. Front Neurol. 2020 Aug 21;11:851. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2020.00851. PMID: 32973654; PMCID: PMC7473304.
  • Mowry EM, Azevedo CJ, McCulloch CE, et al. Body mass index, but not vitamin D status, is associated with brain volume change in MS. Neurology. 2018 Dec;91(24):e2256-e2264. DOI: 10.1212/wnl.0000000000006644.
  • NHS Live Well: the Eatwell guide. 29 July 2022. accessed
  • Panda S. The Circadian Code. (London: Penguin), 20 Aug 2018
  • Paoli A, Bianco A, Damiani E, Bosco G. Ketogenic diet in neuromuscular and neurodegenerative diseases. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:474296. doi:1155/2014/474296
  • Parodi B, Kerlero de Rosbo N. The Gut-Brain Axis in Multiple Sclerosis. Is Its Dysfunction a Pathological Trigger or a Consequence of the Disease? Front Immunol. 2021 Sep 21;12:718220. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.718220
  • Pavón S, Lázaro E, Martínez O, et al. Ketogenic diet and cognition in neurological diseases: a systematic review. Nutr Rev. 2021;79(7):802-813. doi:1093/nutrit/nuaa113
  • Queiroz JDN, Macedo RCO, Tinsley GM, Reischak-Oliveira A. Time-restricted eating and circadian rhythms: the biological clock is ticking. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2021;61(17):2863-2875. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2020.1789550. Epub 2020 Jul 14. PMID: 32662279.
  • Vijay, A., Valdes, A.M. Role of the gut microbiome in chronic diseases: a narrative review. Eur J Clin Nutr 76, 489–501 (2022).

Quality of diet

  • Alhaj OA, Trabelsi K, Younes AM, Shivappa N, Bragazzi NL, Hebert JR, Jahrami HA. Diet-related inflammation increases the odds of multiple sclerosis: Results from a large population-based prevalent case-control study in Jordan. Front Nutr. 2023 Apr 5;10:1098883. doi: 10.3389/fnut.2023.1098883.
  • Campbell C, Campbell TM. The China Study: Revised and Expanded Edition: The Most Comprehensive Study of Nutrition Ever Conducted and the Startling Implications for Diet, Weight Loss, and Long-Term Health, BenBella Books, 12 Jan 2017 ISBN: 1941631568 and via
  • Herman PM, Nguyen P, Sturm R. Diet quality improvement and 30-year population health and economic outcomes: a microsimulation study. Public Health Nutr. 2021 Jan 13;25(5):1-9. doi: 10.1017/S136898002100015X. Epub ahead of print.
  • Fitzgerald KC, Tyry T, Salter A, Cofield SS, Cutter G, Fox G, Marrie RA. Diet quality is associated with disability and symptom severity in multiple sclerosis. Neurology Jan 2018, 90 (1) e1-e11; DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000004768
  • Jakimovski D, Guan Y, Ramanathan M, Weinstock-Guttman B, Zivadinov R. Lifestyle-based modifiable risk factors in multiple sclerosis: review of experimental and clinical findings. Neurodegener Dis Manag. 2019 Jun;9(3):149-172. doi: 10.2217/nmt-2018-0046. Epub 2019 May 22. PMID: 31116081.
  • Simpson-Yap S, Nag N, Probst Y, Jelinek G, Neate S. Higher-quality diet and non-consumption of meat are associated with less self-determined disability progression in people with multiple sclerosis: A longitudinal cohort study. Eur J Neurol. 2021 Aug 14. doi: 10.1111/ene.15066. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34390078.
  • Spain RI, Piccio L, Langer-Gould AM. The Role of Diet in Multiple Sclerosis: Food for Thought. Neurology. 2023 Jan 24;100(4):167-168. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000201565. Epub 2022 Oct 18. PMID: 36257715.
  • Stoiloudis P, Kesidou E, Bakirtzis C, Sintila SA, Konstantinidou N, Boziki M, Grigoriadis N. The Role of Diet and Interventions on Multiple Sclerosis: A Review. Nutrients. 2022 Mar 9;14(6):1150. doi: 10.3390/nu14061150. PMID: 35334810; PMCID: PMC8955724.
  • Vajdi, M., Farhangi, M.A. A systematic review of the association between dietary patterns and health-related quality of life. Health Qual Life Outcomes 18, 337 (2020).
  • Wahls TL, Titcomb TJ, Bisht B, Eyck PT, Rubenstein LM, Carr LJ, Darling WG, Hoth KF, Kamholz J, Snetselaar LG. Impact of the Swank and Wahls elimination dietary interventions on fatigue and quality of life in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: The WAVES randomized parallel-arm clinical trial. Mult Scler J Exp Transl Clin. 2021 Jul 31;7(3):20552173211035399. doi: 10.1177/20552173211035399..


Dairy and MS

  • Chia JSJ, McRae JL, Kukuljan S, Woodford K, Elliott RB, Swinburn B, Dwyer KM. A1 beta-casein milk protein and other environmental pre-disposing factors for type 1 diabetes. Nutr Diabetes. 2017 May 15;7(5):e274. doi: 10.1038/nutd.2017.16.
  • Chunder R, Weier A, Mäurer H, Luber N, Enders M, Luber G, Heider T, Spitzer A, Tacke S, Becker-Gotot J, Kurts C, Iyer R, Ho PP, Robinson WH, Lanz TV, Kuerten S. Antibody cross-reactivity between casein and myelin-associated glycoprotein results in central nervous system demyelination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2022 Mar 8;119(10):e2117034119. doi: 10.1073/pnas.2117034119. Epub 2022 Mar 2.
  • Eichinger A, Neumaier I, Skerra A. The extracellular region of bovine milk butyrophilin exhibits closer structural similarity to human myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein than to immunological BTN family receptors. Biol Chem. 2021 Aug 3;402(10):1187-1202. doi: 10.1515/hsz-2021-0122. PMID: 34342946.
  • Gerstein HC. Cow’s milk exposure and type I diabetes mellitus. A critical overview of the clinical literature. Diabetes Care. 1994 Jan;17(1):13-9. doi: 10.2337/diacare.17.1.13.
  • Kristjánsson G, Venge P, Hällgren R. Mucosal reactivity to cow’s milk protein in coeliac disease. Clin Exp Immunol. 2007 Mar;147(3):449-55. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2007.03298.x.
  • van Lieshout GAA, Lambers TT, Bragt MCE, Hettinga KA.How processing may affect milk protein digestion and overall physiological outcomes: A systematic review, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2020. 60:14, 2422-2445, DOI: 1080/10408398.2019.1646703
  • Malosse D, Perron H, Sasco A, Seigneurin JM. Correlation between milk and dairy product consumption and multiple sclerosis prevalence: a worldwide study. Neuroepidemiology. 1992;11(4-6):304-12. doi: 10.1159/000110946. PMID: 1291895.
  • Niebuhr DW, Li Y, Cowan DN, Weber NS, Fisher JA, Ford GM, Yolken R. Association between bovine casein antibody and new onset schizophrenia among US military personnel. Schizophr Res. 2011 May;128(1-3):51-5. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2011.02.005. Epub 2011 Mar 4.
  • Rojas M, Restrepo-Jiménez P, Monsalve DM, Pacheco Y, Acosta-Ampudia Y, Ramírez-Santana C, Leung PSC, Ansari AA, Gershwin ME, Anaya JM. Molecular mimicry and autoimmunity. J Autoimmun. 2018 Dec;95:100-123. doi: 10.1016/j.jaut.2018.10.012. Epub 2018 Oct 26.
  • Willett WC, Ludwig DS. Milk and Health. N Engl J Med. 2020 Feb 13;382(7):644-654. doi: 10.1056/NEJMra1903547. PMID: 32053300.
  • Wilmet WC & Ludwig DS. Milk and health. N Engl J Med February 13, 2020; 382:644-654 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMra1903547
  • Vojdani A. Molecular mimicry as a mechanism for food immune reactivities and autoimmunity. Altern Ther Health Med. 2015;21 Suppl 1:34-45.
  • Zhang X, Chen X, Xu Y, Yang J, Du L, Li K, Zhou Y. Milk consumption and multiple health outcomes: umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses in humans. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2021 Jan 7;18(1):7. doi: 10.1186/s12986-020-00527-y.



Fats and MS

  • Anarson A, 10 types of saturated fats reviewed, Healthline July 1, 2019 via
  • Bazinet RP, Layé S. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and their metabolites in brain function and disease. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2014 Dec;15(12):771-85. doi: 10.1038/nrn3820. Epub 2014 Nov 12. PMID: 25387473.
  • Broos JY, Loonstra FC, de Ruiter LRJ, Gouda M, Fung WH, Schoonheim MM, Heijink M, Strijbis EMM, Teunissen C, Killestein J, de Vries HE, Giera M, Uitdehaag BMJ, Kooij G. Association of Arachidonic Acid-Derived Lipid Mediators With Disease Severity in Patients With Relapsing and Progressive Multiple Sclerosis. Neurology. 2023 Aug 1;101(5):e533-e545. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000207459. Epub 2023 Jun 8. PMID: 37290971; PMCID: PMC10401685.
  • Cederholm T, Salem N Jr, Palmblad J. ω-3 fatty acids in the prevention of cognitive decline in humans. Adv Nutr. 2013 Nov 6;4(6):672-6. doi: 10.3945/an.113.004556. PMID: 24228198; PMCID: PMC3823515.
  • Chianese R, Coccurello R, Viggiano A, Scafuro M, Fiore M, Coppola G, Operto FF, Fasano S, Laye S, Pierantoni R, Meccariello R. Impact of Dietary Fats on Brain Functions. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2018;16(7):1059-1085. doi: 10.2174/1570159X15666171017102547. PMID: 29046155; PMCID: PMC6120115.
  • Ciampi E, Uribe-San-Martin R, Soler B, Molnar K, Reyes D, Keller K, Carcamo C. Prevalence of comorbidities in Multiple Sclerosis and impact on physical disability according to disease phenotypes. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2020 Nov;46:102565. doi: 10.1016/j.msard.2020.102565. Epub 2020 Oct 5. PMID: 33039942.
  • Dehghan M, Mente A, Zhang X, Swaminathan S, Li W, Mohan V, Iqbal R, Kumar R, Wentzel-Viljoen E, Rosengren A, Amma LI, Avezum A, Chifamba J, Diaz R, Khatib R, Lear S, Lopez-Jaramillo P, Liu X, Gupta R, Mohammadifard N, Gao N, Oguz A, Ramli AS, Seron P, Sun Y, Szuba A, Tsolekile L, Wielgosz A, Yusuf R, Hussein Yusufali A, Teo KK, Rangarajan S, Dagenais G, Bangdiwala SI, Islam S, Anand SS, Yusuf S; Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study investigators. Associations of fats and carbohydrate intake with cardiovascular disease and mortality in 18 countries from five continents (PURE): a prospective cohort study. Lancet. 2017 Nov 4;390(10107):2050-2062. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32252-3. Epub 2017 Aug 29. PMID: 28864332.
  • Erasmus, Udo, Fats that Heal, Alive Books: England; Rev., Updated and Expanded Ed edition (1 Dec. 1993)
  • Gafson AR, Thorne T, McKechnie CIJ, Jimenez B, Nicholas R, Matthews PM. Lipoprotein markers associated with disability from multiple sclerosis. Sci Rep. 2018 Nov 19;8(1):17026. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-35232-7. PMID: 30451923; PMCID: PMC6242870.
  • Harvard: TH Chan, The Nutrition Source: PURE study makes headlines, 2017, but the conclusions are misleading via
  • Layé S. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, neuroinflammation and well being. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2010 Apr-Jun;82(4-6):295-303. doi: 10.1016/j.plefa.2010.02.006. Epub 2010 Mar 15. PMID: 20227866.
  • Liu AG, Ford NA, Hu FB, Zelman KM, Mozaffarian D, Kris-Etherton PM. A healthy approach to dietary fats: understanding the science and taking action to reduce consumer confusion. Nutr J. 2017 Aug 30;16(1):53. doi: 10.1186/s12937-017-0271-4. PMID: 28854932; PMCID: PMC5577766.
  • Magyari M, Sorensen PS. Comorbidity in Multiple Sclerosis. Front Neurol. 2020 Aug 21;11:851. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2020.00851. PMID: 32973654; PMCID: PMC7473304.
  • Simopoulos AP. An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity. Nutrients. 2016 Mar 2;8(3):128. doi: 10.3390/nu8030128. PMID: 26950145; PMCID: PMC4808858.
  • Simopoulos AP. The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids. Biomed Pharmacother. 2002 Oct;56(8):365-79. doi: 10.1016/s0753-3322(02)00253-6. PMID: 12442909.
  • Sánchez-Alegría K, Arias C. Functional consequences of brain exposure to saturated fatty acids: From energy metabolism and insulin resistance to neuronal damage. Endocrinol Diabetes Metab. 2023 Jan;6(1):e386. doi: 10.1002/edm2.386. Epub 2022 Nov 2. PMID: 36321333; PMCID: PMC9836261.
  • Swank RL, Dugan BB. Effect of low saturated fat diet in early and late cases of multiple sclerosis. Lancet. 1990 Jul 7;336(8706):37-9. doi: 10.1016/0140-6736(90)91533-g. PMID: 1973220.
  • Teicholz N. A short history of saturated fat: the making and unmaking of a scientific consensus. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2023 Feb 1;30(1):65-71. doi: 10.1097/MED.0000000000000791. Epub 2022 Dec 8. PMID: 36477384; PMCID: PMC9794145.